Global Issues in Language Education: Issue 26. Mar. 1997. (p. 9)
English in the Philippines
by Doray Espinosa (Language Institute of Japan - LIOJ)
It has often been said that in the Philippines, America was able to
do in 50 years what Spain was never able to accomplish in 300 - make the
Filipinos understand and eventually accept, with affection, their masters.
Right from the start, when Spain claimed the Philippines as its colony in
1521, it was clear how the Spaniards thought of their mission. They called
the natives indios or Indians, and set out to redeem their savage and
ignorant souls with religion - Roman Catholicism.
More than three centuries and a bloody revolution later, the indios
had wholeheartedly embraced Catholicism, but just as wholeheartedly
rejected Spanish rule. By this time, only the Filipino rich and educated
elite were literate in Spanish. Ironically, from this same exclusive set
came the founders of a secret society that pushed for reform and
In 1898, after a mock battle at Manila Bay, Spain ceded the
Philippines to the United States. Although there was also a bloody but
short-lived Philippine-American Revolution, it took a shorter time for the
Americans to pacify and befriend the Filipinos. Unlike Spain's strategy,
America's means of attack and assimilation was not religion. It was mass
Thus, less than half a century later, the Filipinos had adopted the
American form of government, embraced the American dream, spoke the
American language, and were content to be called "little brown Americans".
Decades after the US granted the Philippines its independence in 1946, many
Filipinos still believed in and actively campaigned for the Philippines
becoming the 51st state of the United States.
The Philippine-American connection has undergone considerable
changes since then. Today, English - the means the Americans used to teach
us via the mass media, the arts, social, business and political interaction
- continues to be a strong thread that binds the two nations. The Spanish
language, meanwhile, has been relegated to a college elective and to
private gatherings of wealthy clans of Spanish descent.
Why has English become so easy to learn and so easy to use in the
Philippines? A major reason is that the Americans were once our colonizers
and continue to influence our everyday lives in many ways. Another reason
is that for most Filipinos, English is not seen as a foreign language. In a
country of 60 million people who speak no less than 8 languages, English is
a second language. In some areas, English is more popular than our official
national language. For a select few, it is even a first language.
It is not unusual to see Filipino children responding to and
speaking English words long before they learn these in school. Adults are
constantly cooing to kids such baby talk as "close-open" (opening and
closing of the child's hands) or "beautiful eyes" (fluttering the eyelashes
in what is supposed to be a cute manner). Parents prod kids to exhibit
their intelligence by correctly answering simple questions like "Where's
your nose, mouth, cheek, etc.?" or "Where's the dog, cat, moon, etc.?"
Usually, by the time the child enters elementary school, he or she
has built a vocabulary of English that includes body parts, names of
animals and objects, action verbs, simple adjectives (dirty, good, bad),
polite expressions (please, thank you, I'm sorry), nursery rhymes, and
simple questions (What's your name? How old are you?)
For most middle and upper class Filipino children, English begins
at home with adults who use English or through snatches of English words
and phrases heard over the radio and on TV. To the Filipino child or, at
least, one who has grown up in a home where English is often heard and
spoken, English is not an alien tongue. Filipino children may not
understand the nuances of the English language, but it's there and it's
theirs to manipulate. English is familiar and, better yet, user-friendly.
Anybody can use it and once you get the hang of it, there's really nothing
The fact that the Philippine education system has been using
English as a medium of instruction from elementary to university level for
decades has also reinforced the notion that English is easy - even a child
can do it - and available. It is a tool for learning and a medium of
More than this, English is the language of power and progress. In
the Philippines, it is highly valued not only because it is functional and
practical and washes over us constantly, but more importantly, because it
is an affordable item, a skill that can be used to increase one's position,
respectability and marketability. In most cases, the better one's ability
to understand and use English, the better one's chances of career
advancement. This is true for both extremes of the socio-economic ladder.
English is as important to the Harvard-educated Filipino working in
Manila's cosmopolitan business district as it is to the overseas contract
worker working as a domestic helper in Saudi Arabia.
In fact, now, more than ever, English is important to the Filipino
masses seeking employment abroad. The Filipinos' skill and cheap labor are
in demand, yes, but so is their command and comprehension of English which
makes it easy for foreign employers to tell them what to do. English, after
all, is a global language and, luckily - some say unluckily - Filipinos
managed to unravel this code quite early and easily.
In recent years, serious questions have been asked about the
appropriateness of English as a medium of communication for a people
searching for a clear-cut identity. Filipinos are not Americans, our
nationalists cried. Why then do we continue to dream their dreams and speak
Much as our purists and nationalists wanted to erase all traces of
American colonial influence, they knew that the language, rather than the
dreams, was less difficult to delete. Or so, they thought. Like the US
military bases in the Philippines, English had become a symbol of the
subtle but strong dominance of America. It took a strong-willed Philippine
Senate and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to figuratively and literally
bury the US bases in ashes. Obliterating English is another matter.
Despite presidential orders to require government offices to
communicate in our national language, and requiring all schools to use it
as a medium of instruction, the campaign to Filipinize our information and
communication highways and networks has not met with much enthusiasm or
Although most Filipinos understand and are literate in the national
language, it is not their mother tongue. Many of us have little use for it
except when travelling to other areas in the country, watching local movies
made in Manila, reading comics and tabloids published in Manila, watching
local TV programs produced in Manila, and listening to the pronouncements
of national officials, most of whom come from the capital region.
Filipino, our national language, is 95% Tagalog, a dialect (or
language, some scholars insist) spoken by those who live in Manila and its
outlying areas. The rest of the country speak their own dialects or
languages and many see the "use-Filipino" campaign as nothing more than
another form of domination by those who reside in the seat of economic and
Meanwhile, the education system, long used to English textbooks and
instruction, had to scramble for Filipino books and qualified teachers who
could speak Filipino. Unfortunately, the government failed to consider the
difficulties - and the huge amount of money needed - in transforming
centers of learning from English to Filipino.
In a setting where education is one of the lowest budget
priorities, where teachers are among the lowest paid professionals, and
where the systematic translation of English to Filipino has never been
given serious thought or considered important, the shift from English to
Filipino ended in confusion and frustration. Perhaps, the best lesson we
can learn from that experience is that language grows. Slowly. It cannot be
transplanted and expected to blossom quickly by a mere presidential decree.
This is not to say that Filipinos will never be able to feel a
sense of who and what they are because they do not speak the same
indigenous language. They were united enough when they came out in the
streets and put an end to the Marcos dictatorship. English and Filipino had
very little to do with it. It had to do with knowing they nurtured a common
dream in whatever language they happened to be fluent in.
While other Asian countries are riding the Third Wave, the
Filipinos are paddling in opposite directions because many of them are
afraid the wave will engulf them and drown their sense of nationhood. While
others keep trying to find ways to increase their English proficiency in
the light of international relations, global cooperation and rapid
developments in computers and telecommunications, we have been engaged in
finding a voice we can truly call our own.
One day, we may find that voice and speak in unison, but until
then, I believe that English can do it for us, too. That is, if we stop
thinking of it as a colonial instrument that broke our spirit, but as the
code that helped us break through other worlds.
Language, they say, is the key to understanding others. What many
Filipinos miss is that English can also be used as a key to understanding
ourselves. English, after all, does not belong to America. If we accept it
with grace and use it with wisdom, it can belong to the rest of the world.
c/o Language Institute of Japan (LIOJ), 4-14-1
Shiroyama, Odawara, Kanagawa 250, JAPAN
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